Is there anything better than enjoying the sea in peace while listening to the sound of the wind in the sails. As every sailor knows, mastering sailing techniques is key for navigating the sea confidently and safely. Sailing is all about harmonious dance between the wind, the sails and the sailor's skill. This sailing tutorial will answer the popular question how to sail upwind, cover the points of sailing and explain how to trim the sails properly.
How sailing works and how to sail upwind
Design of the sails and hull, along with the keel and rudder allows the sailboat to move throuhg the water. When the wind blows on the sails, it creates a force that pushes the boat downwind or pulls the boat upwind. Many of us are wondering how can the sailboat move towards the wind? Well, we can't sail directly into the wind, but we can sail 30-45° with bow into the wind. Sails on a boat work by applying Bernoulli's principle, similar like airplane wings. Let's see what happens here:
1. Air Flow: When the wind is blowing into the sails correctly, the air flows around the sails. Two air particules that split on the luff of the sail must meet on the leech of the sail at the same time.
2. Differential Speed: The Due to the curve of the sail, the wind has to travel a longer distance over the outside (leeward) side of the sail than the inside (windward) side. According to Bernoulli's principle, the air travelling the longer path moves faster, creating a lower pressure area on the leeward side of the sail.
3. Creation of Lift: The pressure difference between the windward side (higher pressure) and the leeward side (lower pressure) of the sail creates a force called lift. This lift propels the boat forward and slightly to the side.
4. Counteracting Sideways Motion: The sideways motion caused by lift is counteracted by the keel of the boat. Keel and rudder in the water acts like sails in the air. Water that flows along the keel at the certain angle creates a resistance force that balances out the sideways push, allowing the boat to move forward.
5. Trimming the Sails: By adjusting the shape and angle of the sails (A.K.A. "trimming"), we can control the amount of the lift and heeling. The wind should enter the sail almost in line with the entrance edge.
On a good racing boat, with a high-class helmsman, new well trimmed sails, highly efficient high aspect ratio keel and rudder, polished bottom, in flat water and light to moderate winds, there will be almost no sideways motion.
Points of sailing
The "Points of sailing" are the course or direction a sailboat takes in relation to the wind direction. Thiese points of sailing are the crucial thing to understand for effective sailing, as different points require different sail trims. Here are 6 main sailing positions:
1. Into the Wind/In Irons (No Sail Zone): This refers to when the boat's bow is pointed 40°-45°, either side of the wind. So actually we can't call this a point of sailing, but an angle.
2. Close-Hauled: This is the course closest to the wind that the boat can sail, usually around 30°-45°, depends of the boat. Racing boats can sail closer to the wind while cruisers sail a bit further. In order for the boat to sail close to the wind, sails must be tight.
3. Close Reach: This is the point of sailing where the boat is still sailing upwind but not as close to the wind as on a close-hauled. It's a position between Close-Hauled and Beam Reaching. Usually the fastest position during a light winds.
4. Beam Reach: Here the wind is coming on the boat by the angle of 90°. Usually in sailing schools, first we teach Beam Reach because it's less likely that the boat will enter No-Go zone (No sail zone) or go too much downwind and do uncontrolled Jibe.
5. Broad Reach: This point is when the wind is coming from the stern but at an angle. We say that the wind is coming on half of the stern. Sails (Main and jib sheets) are loosen.
6. Running (Downwind): This is when the wind is coming directly from the behind of the boat. We also call this position "Butterfly" because the sails are on the opposite side. Jib is on the port side and main sail is on the starboard side of the boat or opposite. This is the most dangerous point of sailing because of the risk of an accidental jibe, where the book swings across the boat due to a shift in wind or direction.
Hoisting the sails
Setting the sails is marking the start of any seafaring adventure. However, the process of hoisting the sails, while seemingly straightforward, requires a blend of technique, strength, and understanding of the basics of sailing.
Before we dive into the steps, it's crucial to understand the importance of safety. Ensure you're wearing appropriate sailing gear if needed, make sure all the hatches are closed and all the fragile stuff are secured and on their place.
And finally, lets dive into the steps! We are always hoisting the Mainsail first and then the Jib or Genoa, unless we are sailing with Jib only.
Hoisting the Mainsail
The mainsail is the primary and largest sail on most sailboats. Here are the steps to hoist it:
1. Preparation: Start by untying any sail ties, removing the sail cover or unzipping the lazy bag.
2. Into the wind: Drive the boat with the bow into the wind so the sail can go up without any force.
3. Releasing the Sheets: Release the main sheet and vang so the boom can stay into the wind and move a bit up so the sail can lift all the way up.
4. Hoisting the Sail: Now, pull the Main Halyard to start rising the sail. It's often easier to do this as a two-person job, with one person pulling the halyard from the mast and the other feeding the sail into the track. Last few meters will be hard to pull so do it with the winch, unless you have light racing sails.
5. Start sailing: Close all the stoppers; main halyard, main sheet and wang. Pull the main sheet if needed. Now you can bear away (move away from the wind) until you reach your desired point of sailing. At the end, turn of the engine.
Hoisting the Jib or Genoa
The jib or genoa is the front sail. The process to hoist it is usually bit different and easier than the main sail.
1. Preparation: Let's assume that the boat is on the desired sailing course and the main sail is optimally trimmed. Than we can prepare Jib Sheets and Jib Furling line.
2. Unrolling the Jib: Start by pulling the jib sheet and controlled releasing of the jib furling line. Once the sail is unrolled, we can start trimming the sail.
3. Trimming: Pull the jib or genoa sheet until the luff stop flapping.
Trimming the sails
Perfecting the art of sail trim is crucial to sailing efficiency and speed. To help you on this journey, we'll focus on the basic principles of trimming the two most common sails: the jib or genoa and the mainsail. This includes understanding telltales and controlling sail shape.
Let's start from the ground up, focusing on the fundamental principles that dictate how your sails should appear at each point of sailing. The concept is simple: when you're sailing closer to the wind, or "upwind," your sails should be tighter and more flat. Conversely, as you steer away from the wind or "bear away," your sails should be eased and deeper. This basic understanding of sail adjustment is crucial to harnessing the wind's power effectively at all points of sail.
Telltales are small ribbons or pieces of yarn attached to both sides of your sails. They provide immediate visual feedback about airflow over your sails and are indispensable tools for optimizing sail trim.
When your sail trim is correct, the wind flows smoothly over both sides of the sail, and all telltales will stream horizontally. If the telltales behave differently, it's a sign that your sail trim needs adjustment:
1. Luffing Telltales: If the telltales on the windward side (the side facing the wind) flutter or lift, your sail may be luffing (flapping at the front edge), which means it's not catching the wind efficiently. You may be sailing too close to the wind or need to sheet in the sail slightly.
2. Stalling Telltales: If the telltales on the leeward side (the side away from the wind) drop or flutter, your sail may be stalling, suggesting the angle of attack is too great. You'll need to steer away from the wind slightly or sheet out the sail a bit.
The jib or genoa is typically the forward-most sail, and its primary control line is the jib sheet.
Jib Sheet Tension: First thing you should look in the sail is the luff (front edge). If it's flapping it means that the sail is too released and open so we should tighten it. Pull the jib sheet until the luff stop flapping. Have in mind that if the sail is maximally tightened and the luff is still flapping, then you are sailing too close to the wind. In that case bear away until the luff stop flapping. Now when your sail has a nice shape and its steady, you can start watching the telltales as explained before.
Jib Car Position: The position of the jib car affects the sail's leech tension. Moving the car forward increases leech tension, while moving it aft decreases tension. Generally it will be closer to the stern while sailing upwind and closer to the bow while sailing downwind. Also many times you will se the top of the sail flapping. By moving the Jib car forward you will tighten the leech and thus the top of the sail.
The mainsail is the largest sail on a sailboat, crucial for propulsion and maneuverability. It's adjustable for optimal wind use, dictating direction and stability, vital for proficient sailing.
Mainsheet Tension: The mainsheet controls the boom's angle and the sail's leech tension. In general, a tighter mainsheet flattens the sail for upwind sailing or heavy winds, while easing the mainsheet allows a fuller sail for downwind sailing or light winds. Again look at the luff of the sail, if it's flapping, tighen it until it stops. Usually, on a charter cruising boat you will have telltales just at the end of the sail. Here is how to controll them; if you can't see them, they are hiding behind the sail so, release the mailsheet until they start fluttering behind the sail.
Vang Adjustment: The vang, often known as the boom vang, regulates the vertical movement of the boom and therefore controls the leech tension. When the vang is tightened, it increases the leech tension and flattens the sail, which is beneficial when sailing upwind or in heavier winds. Easing the vang allows the boom to lift and the sail to adopt a fuller shape, generating more power, which is useful when sailing downwind or in light wind conditions.
Tacking and Jibing
Mastering the art of Tacking and Jibing is an essential part of your sailing arsenal. Both maneuvers allow you to change course while maintaining forward motion, yet each involves distinct actions and presents unique challenges.
Tacking: A Close-Hauled Change of Direction
Tacking is the process of changing the boat's direction by moving the bow through the wind, usually when you're sailing upwind or in a "close-hauled" point of sail.
Prepare to Tack: Inform your crew that you plan to tack. The standard command is "Ready to Tack!.". Look over your windward shoulder, approximately 90° is where you should end the tack.
Turn the Helm: When your crew is ready, turn the helm away of the sails. The boat will begin to move into the wind.
Change Sides: As the bow crosses the wind, quickly move to the opposite side of the boat, bringing the helm in the middle to re-center it.
Release and Tighten the Sheets: As you change sides, the crew should release the jib sheet on the original side and pull in on the new side. The mainsail will naturally swing across as the boat turns.
Resume Course: Straighten the tiller once the boat has completed the tack and is on its new course. The sails should be properly trimmed for the new point of sail.
Remember, smooth and controlled movement is key during a tack to maintain the boat speed.
Jibing: Changing Course When Sailing Downwind
Jibing, or gybing, is the downwind counterpart to tacking, a maneuver where you change direction by moving the stern through the wind. Controlling the sails during a jibe is vital as the wind is behind the boat.
Prepare to Jibe: Just as with tacking, announce your intent to jibe to the crew. The usual command is "Prepare to jibe."
Turn the Helm: Gently steer the helm towards the sails to initiate the jibe, causing the boat to start turning.
Control the Mainsail: As the wind crosses from one side of the boat to the other, carefully manage the mainsail using the mainsheet to prevent it from swinging across the boat too quickly.
Change Position: Once the wind is directly behind the boat, switch to the opposite side of the helm, keeping the helm straight.
Adjust the Sails: As you switch sides, the crew should ease out the new windward jib sheet and pull in the new leeward sheet to optimize sail trim on the new course.
Resume Sailing: After the jibe, return to your course and fine-tune your sail trim for the new point of sail.
Safety is the most important thing during a jibe. Keep a firm control on the mainsail and be mindful of your crew's position.
As we conclude this journey through sailing basics, remember that the art and science of sailing extends far beyond these fundamental techniques. Sailing is a continuous process of learning and adaptation. The sea offers us countless lessons, and each voyage is an opportunity to refine your skills and deepen your connection with the natural world.
However, don't rush your progression as a sailor. Embrace the challenges and view each setback as a stepping stone on your journey. Keep in mind the reasons why you were drawn to sailing – the thrill, the serenity, and the sheer joy of being at one with the wind and the waves. As your skills grow, may your passion for this captivating pursuit only intensify.
Here's wishing you fair winds and following seas as you continue your sailing adventure.